Saturday, February 28, 2015

Grammar 2: Article, Adjective, Adverb

(the lesson follows this section)

Article in Greek? Start with: the
Check: It must agree (in gender, number, and case) with what it points out.
No article in Greek? Start with: a
Write athe – or nothing at all.

If an article occurs before a preposition and does not belong to a word following the prepositional phrase,
write the one – or nothing at all.
If an article occurs before an infinitive, and perhaps after a preposition,
use context to render those words.
Read it aloud. Does it read well? Does it draw the right amount of attention?

adjective (which one? what kind? how many?)
Look up the word. Look for its context-specific meaning.
Check: It must agree (in gender, number, and case) with what it describes.

In the following:
{ } means maybe
 means no

1. {article} + adjective – noun
Write the adjective, then one or ones.
The adjective functions as a noun.
τοῖς  ἁγίοις
to the holy ones

2. article + adjective + {article} + noun
or {article} + noun + article + adjective
Write article and adjective, then the noun.
The adjective functions as an adjective.
τοῦ μακαρίου θεοῦ
of the blessed God

3. adjective + article + noun
Write the article, noun, is, then the adjective.
The adjective functions as a predicate nominative
(it’s on the right of a be/become verb).
πιστὸς  ὁ λόγος
the Word is faithful

4. adjective + noun   or   noun + adjective
Write the adjective, then the noun.
θεῷ  ἀληθινῷ
by the true God
Or: write the noun, is, then the adjective.
Or: write the adjective, of, then the genitive noun.
πάντων  ὑμῶν

adverb (when? where? how? why?)
Write the adverb at about the same position in the sentence.

An adverb describes a nearby verb, adjective, or adverb.
Use context and similar passages to help you understand.


article: points out a noun

color coding: black

An article and its noun agree in case, number, and gender.

The article comes in 24 forms. And the forms are very consistent. So you can use them to determine gender, number, and case. For example:

Eph 1:7

...κα¦τὰ  τὸ  πλοῦ¦τος  τῆς  χά¦ρι¦τος  αὐ¦τοῦ...
according to the riches of His grace

Here, two words end in -ος.

The article is a helpful guide.
- τὸ reveals that πλοῦ¦τος is nominative or accusative; singular; neuter.
- τῆς reveals that χά¦ρι¦τος is genitive, singular, feminine.


article present: Translate the article as "the." If that calls too much attention to what it is pointing to, and does not sound good to the ear, English might not need it.

1 Thes 1:8

...ἐξ¦ή¦χη¦ται    λό¦γος  τοῦ  κυ¦ρί¦ου...
the Word of the Lord sounded forth

1 Thes 1:3
...τοῦ  ἔρ¦γου  τῆς  πί¦στε¦ως
καὶ  τοῦ  κό¦που  τῆς  ¦γά¦πης
καὶ  τῆς  ¦πο¦μο¦νῆς  τῆς  ἐλ¦πί¦δος...
work of faith
and labor of love
and patience of hope


article absentIf an article is absent, English might need aan, or the to convey the same sense.

1 Thes 1:7

¦στε  γε¦νέσ¦θαι  ¦μᾶς  τύ¦πον...
so that you became an example

1 Thes 1:1

...ἐν  θε¦  πα¦τρὶ  καὶ  κυ¦ρί¦ῳ  ¦η¦σοῦ  Χρι¦στῷ...
in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ


article: special combos

Articles appear in special combinations:
- article + participle
- article + infinitive
- article + preposition.

The participle, verb, and preposition lessons include details about these special combinations.


article: 24 forms

Here is a list of the 24 forms of the article:

- singular m-f-n: ὁ ἡ τό
- plural m-f-n: οἱ αἱ τά

- singular m-f-n: τοῦ τῆς τοῦ
- plural m-f-n: τῶν τῶν τῶν

- singular m-f-n: τῷ τῇ τῷ
- plural m-f-n: τοῖς ταῖς τοῖς

- singular m-f-n: τόν τήν τό
- plural m-f-n: τούς τάς τά


article vs. relative pronoun: how to tell them apart

A relative pronoun and an article look somewhat similar. Yet a relative pronoun is easy to spot:
- No initial τ
- A rough breathing mark
- An accent mark

In addition, at the Great Treasures site: pronouns are blue; articles are black.

1 Thes 1:8

...ὁ  λό¦γος...
the word
ὁ is the article, meaning the.

1 Thes 2:13
...λό¦γον  θε¦οῦ ς  καὶ  ¦νερ¦γεῖ¦ται...
the wor
d of God, which also works
ς is blue, a relative pronoun, meaning which.


adjective: describes a noun (which one? what kind? how many?)

color coding
- blue underline

An adjective and its noun agree in case, number, and gender.

Luke 8:3
ἕ¦τε¦ραι  πολ¦λαί
nominative plural feminine


article-adjective-noun patterns

See the "adjectives: how to translate" section, at the top of this lesson.



Numbers are adjectives, describing how many. You'll encounter and learn numbers in context.

The most frequent number is 
εἷς, meaning one. Its forms are:

εἷς  masculine
¦α  feminine
ἓν  neuter

Eph 4:5
εἷς  κύ
¦ρι¦ος,  μί¦α  πί¦στις,  ἓν  βάπ¦τισ¦μα·
one Lord, one faith, one baptism


adjectives within 1 Thes 1

1 Thes 1:2

¦ρὶ  πάν¦των  ¦μῶν...

- Translation: all
- What it is: adjective
- Form: genitive plural m-f-n
- Agrees with: 
- Functions as: adjective
- Describes: 
- Describing: which one, what kind, how many | when, where, how, why

- Translation: you
- What it is: noun
- Form: genitive plural --
- Agrees with: --
- Functions as: object of the preposition πε
- Describes: --
- Describing: --

πε¦ρὶ   πάν¦των   ¦μῶν
- Translation: for you all
- What it is: prepositional phrase


1 Thes 1:5

πνεύ¦μα¦τι  ¦γί¦  καὶ  πλη¦ρο¦φο¦ρί¦ πολ¦λῇ...

- Translation: holy one; holy
- What it is: adjective
- Form: dative singular m-n
- Agrees with: 

- Functions as: adjective
- Describes: 
- Describing: 
which one, what kindhow many | when, where, how, why

- Translation: much
- What it is: adjective
- Form: dative singular feminine

- Agrees with: 
πληροφορίᾳ, full conviction

- Describes: πληροφορίᾳ
- Describing: 
which one, what kind, how many when, where, how, why

πνεύ¦μα¦τι ¦γί¦  καὶ  πλη¦ρο¦φο¦ρί¦  πολ¦λῇ...
- Translation: in holy spirit and with much, full conviction
- What it is: prepositional phrase


1 Thes 1:9

...δου¦λεύ¦ειν  θε¦... ¦λη¦θι¦νῷ

δου¦λεύ¦ειν  θε¦
- Translation: to serve God
- What it is: an infinitive and its direct object

- (this direct object is in dative rather than accusative, which happens with some verbs)

- Translation: true one; true
- What it is: adjective
- Form: dative singular masculine
- Agrees with: 
- Functions as: adjective
- Describes: 
- Describing
which one, what kindhow many | when, where, how, why

δου¦λεύ¦ειν  θε¦...  ¦λη¦θι¦νῷ
to serve the true God


1 Thes 1:10
...ἐκ  τῶν  

- Translation: dead ones
- What it is: adjective
- Form: genitive plural masculine
- Agrees with: --
- Functions as: object of the preposition 

- Describes: ones
- Describing: which one, what kind, how many | when, where, how, why

ἐκ  τῶν  νε
- Translation: from the dead ones
- What it is: prepositional phrase


adverbdescribes a verb, adjective, or another adverb (when? where? how? why?)
color coding - red underline

An adverb does not agree with anything else, since it doesn't have anything with which to agree.

Most of the time, this is not a problem, as the adverb is physically close to what it describes. What if you find an adverb located about the same distance from two words (verbs, adjectives, other adverbs) which it could describe? Read and consider the context, including context provided by similar passages.

1 Thes 1:2

Εὐ¦χα¦ρι¦στοῦ¦μεν  τῷ  θε¦   πάν¦το¦τε...

- Translation: always
- What it is: adverb
- Form: --

- Agrees with: --
- Functions as: adverb
- Describes: 
- Describing: which one, what kind, how many | when, where, how, why
Εὐ¦χα¦ρι¦στοῦ¦μεν τῷ  θε¦  πάν¦το¦τε...
We give thanks to God always


1 Thes 1:5

¦γε¦νή¦θη  εἰς  ¦μᾶς  ἐν  λό¦γῳ   μό¦νον...

- Translation: only
- What it is: adverb
- Form: --- Agrees with: --

- Functions as: adverb
- Describes: 
¦γε¦νή¦θη it came to us
- Describing: which one, what kind, how many | when, where, how, why

¦γε¦νή¦θη  εἰς  ¦μᾶς  ἐν   λό¦γῳ  μό¦νον
it came to you not in word only


1 Thes 1:9
...καὶ  πῶς 
¦πε¦στρέψ¦ατε πρὸς τὸν θε¦ὸν...

- Translation: how
- What it is: adverb
- Form: --- Agrees with: --

- Functions as: adverb
- Describes: 
¦πε¦στρέψ¦ατε you turned
- Describing: which one, what kind, how many | when, where, how, why

¦πε¦στρέψ¦ατε  πρὸς  τὸν  θε¦ὸν

and how you turned to God


Little Notes

Articular: a word with a corresponding article.

Anarthrous (ahn-ahr-thruhs)
: a word without a corresponding article.


Article vs articlesEnglish has two articles. The definite article is the. The indefinite article is a. However, in Greek, there is just one article--and it corresponds to the word the. That is why it is referred to as the article, for there is just one in Greek.

Modifier: the category of words that describe other words; this category includes articles, adjectives, and adverbs.Substantive: an adjective which functions as a noun.

Position. Three terms describe the position of an adjective, relative to its corresponding noun. Using these abbreviations:
| r = article | a = adjective | n = noun | are the names and corresponding a patterns:
Attributive position: r-a-n, or r-n-r-a
Substantive position: r-a
Predicative position: r-n-a or a-r-n


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brianonpyromaniacs said...

Immediately after the instruction of how to translate in adjective (using 4 rules), there are some example-verses provided. The second example-verse is listed as '1 Thes 2:14.' However the portion of Greek text provided from this verse doesn't have an accurate English translation, since the English translation that is provided is for another/preceding portion of this verse. The inaccurate English translation for the Greek words ("hupo twn idiwn sumfuletwn") is given as "by the same sufferings" when it should be given as "by the own co-tribesmen/countrymen".

Peter Coad said...

Good catch. Thank you. Pete