Wednesday, July 4, 2012

Grammar 8: Next Steps

What's next?

Here are some possible next steps in your study of NT Greek:

1. Build your vocabulary. This is the most important step in building your feeling of being at home with the Greek text.

- Best recommendation: use a vocabulary app, just before bed and soon after you wake up each day. Learn the most frequent words first, then gradually add more and more. An app that works really well for this is called Shinun. Try it!

- Buy flashcards for the words occurring 50 or more times in the Greek NT. By learning about 320 words, you'll be equipped to recognize core word meaning for about 80% of the Greek NT. Learn new words at a steady pace, for example, 10 per week, and you'll be done in less than a year.

- Or download and use the memory-building illustrations at Visual Greek.

2. Read Greek in parallel with other versions, at Bible GT.

- Read simple sentences. In the beginner section, click "versions" and add the Greek Septuagint and Westcott-Hort with Parts of Speech. When you read a short, simple verse in your native tongue, read the same verse in Greek. Over time, this little bit of added practice bears fruit.

- Pick up high-frequency words. In the beginner section, click "versions' and add the "Greek Westcott-Hort Graded Reader." Then you can select words you'd like to learn (for example, all words that occur 50 or more times in the Greek NT) and see them in whatever chapter you are considering. When you read chapter in your native tongue, look over and learn one of the high frequency words that are in the corresponding Greek. Over time, this little bit of added practice bears fruit.

- Be on the lookout for short statements that you can use in everyday thinking and speaking. Here's one:

Εὐχαριστοῦμεν  τῷ  θεῷ πάντοτε  περὶ  πάντων  ὑμῶν...1 Thes 1:2

Say it out loud. Look for occasions to say it aloud. Now take the expression and adapt it in small ways, so you can use what you've learned in more contexts. For example, when speaking as an individual to another individual:

Εὐχαριστῶ  τῷ  θεῷ  περὶ  σού.

Or put together a short saying for daily speaking, such as:

Ἀγαπῶ  σε.

Then search in Google to see what you can find (you might even find a song).

3. Read (yes, read!) a grammar book, a chapter a week.

- Read a grammar book at a modest pace, for example one chapter per week. An effective beginning is Basics of Biblical Greek by Bill Mounce. You may opt to skip the "exegetical insights" sections and focus your study time on grammar and vocabulary. With 35 chapters, you'll done in less than a year. If you would like a set of lectures to go along with the book, you'll find them here.

- An excellent follow-on is Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics by Daniel Wallace. It's rich with Scripture references with minimal commentary; you'll find yourself spending good time in the Scriptures, even while learning some Greek grammar along the way.

4. Enroll and actively participate in a two-quarter or two-semester course in Biblical Greek, at a Bible college in the community in which you live.

5. Enroll and immerse yourself in a Living Koine Greek immersion course. This is especially helpful if your goal is to think in the language itself when reading the Scriptures. More, here.


©2015 All rights reserved worldwide.

What's New

In development for 2013
- Mobile editions: iPad, iPhone, Android
- OT word studies: Hebrew and Greek
- OT translation helps: Hebrew and Greek

- Section headings (in light gray) and cross references (in light blue), for certain versions

- Advanced section: an option for two "My Translation" columns, for translating the Hebrew OT and the Greek OT, side-by-side

- Bible GT is our new name (it's the name for our site, our app in Facebook, and our forthcoming mobile apps)

- Version updates: NIV 2011, ESV 2011

- Performance update for members with hundreds of notes

- Beginner section: Westcott Hort, Phonetic Editions (Erasmus, Koine, Modern)
- Advanced section: Phonetics (Erasmus, Koine, Modern)
- Advanced section: Lessons update, adding more "how to" content, plus an Example Sentence

- Beginner section: 108 versions, 59 languages
- Intermediate section: verse lists based upon Westcott-Hort
- Advanced section: Westcott-Hort Greek text, with parts-of-speech color coding
- Advanced section: NA27 Greek text

2010 in review: new features, now online
- Beginner section: 82 versions, 44 languages
- Beginner section: automatically display a local-language version
- Beginner section: print my friends’ notes as endnotes
- Advanced section: synchronized scrolling with the beginner section
- Advanced section: print one’s translation alongside other versions
- Advanced section: print translation helps including verse details
- Share with specific GT friends, in a very controlled fashion
- Share with FB Bible friends, for a wider distribution of content
- Hourly Bible tweets/texts, in 100 versions, 49 languages

Bible tweets and texts throughout the day. 100 versions, 49 languages, global outreach.

Q-and-A interview about this on-going project.

- Three levels: beginner, intermediate, advanced--a better fit for everyone in the church
- When beginner and advance levels are open, they scroll together--encouraging reading and translating with context in mind
- "Printer-friendly format" and "print to pdf" are much more capable than before--making it easier to print out a chapter, for sharing at church and elsewhere
- Merge your Great Treasures and Facebook Bible notes, if you wish--so you have the option of seeing and making notes in both places.
- Share your notes with your Great Treasures friends; and with your Facebook friends too, if you so choose--totally in your control; turn it on and off with ease
- Mobile edition for mobile browsers, including Safari on iPhone
- New column (in the advanced section) exclusively for your translation--for translating a passage more effectively, as a whole

The site has a new name, a new look, and new features. Great Treasures better describes what the site is all about: great treasures in the scriptures. The new look encourages better Bible study practices, such as keeping context in mind while doing a word study. New features include:
- 82 versions (including NIV and multiple Greek texts), up to 6 at a time—to better understand what is written
- 3 levels: chapter study, word study, Greek study—to better fit you, your study style, your strengths
- 5 kinds of notes: book, chapter, verse, word study, translation—to express yourself, really get it, prepare to share with others
- 7 note commands: add, edit, delete, move, min/max, undo, download—to give you full control
- 2-step note sharing: permit (others); choose (to see)—to safely share with others you know
- 4 servers and a 100-megabit internet connection—to support you in staying in flow, considering the scriptures

Here's what's new for the Bible app on Facebook:
- 80 versions (including NIV and multiple Greek texts), up to 2 at a time—to better understand what is written
- 3 kinds of notes: book, chapter, verse
- 6 note commands: add, edit, delete, move, min/max, undo—to give you full control
- Share notes with friends—to grow and help others grow
- Publish a note and verse to your news feed—to make it easier to share the scriptures with others
- 4 servers and a 100-megabit internet connection—to support you in staying in flow, considering the scriptures

Bible in Facebook: major update
- Click and directly edit notes
- See your notes and your friends' notes
- Click to see your friends' activities: recent chapters, recent notes
- Invite your friends who have not yet added the Bible app

User-interface advances
- Streamlines Greek support with new Greek "Tools" menu: Graded Reader, Vocabulary, Lessons
- Adds new coverage of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
- Updates the how-to guide

English Standard Version (ESV, 2001)

Listen: Greek NT audio, modern pronunciation

User-interface advances
- Streamlines main menu and account links, to increase the amount of screen real estate dedicated to the Scriptures themselves
- Emphasizes the three actions members use most: Read, Translate, Word Study
- Adds version-specific "Font" and "Size" menu actions, for a better online reading experience

Vocabulary builder: new "Words" pane, far right side
- Builds vocabulary that sticks, woven within context
- Shows the lexical forms of the words in a chapter
- Options: ordering, vocabulary-building level

Graded Reader (in '11: click versions, then Greek | Westcott-Hort Graded Reader)
- Adjusts itself to better fit you, help you grow
- Adjusts by the number of times a word occurs in the NT: choose level you want, such as 40-49x and 100-249x
- Or adjusts by the Basics of Biblical Greek textbook chapters you have studied, such as chapters 4-8 plus 16

Syllables ( and words parts (walk|ing)
- Knocks down the "it's hard to read aloud" barrier, for the hard part about reading aloud is learning to see the syllable breaks within Greek words (especially long ones)
- Unveils word parts, so you can spot the nuances of a form and its meaning
- Option: turn off dots and bars (click on the "Dots/Bars" menu and select "No Dots/Bars"

Translation tips: expanded
- Encourages learning verb forms within context
- Supplies translation tips for every verb and participle

Lessons: new menu, in the Greek and Reader panes
- Smooths the way for beginners to begin (and for returning students to brush up)
- 4 alphabet lessons + 8 grammar lessons
- New content: the alphabet song
- Links for all specialized terms (such as "deponent"), from the site, directly to the corresponding lesson materials

Listen: Greek NT audio, Erasmus' pronunciation

Bible in Facebook
- Encourages reading the Scriptures with friends; share notes; see what your friends are reading
- Option: displays your notes from Great Treasures, too

Greek Word Study: new mouseover action, in the KJV and Greek panes
- Pulls together word-study resources for you, automatically
- Includes short definition, long definition, parallel verse lists in Greek (Tischendorf) and English (KJV), word family, specific form, form table

Short definitions
- Delivers definitions based solely upon Biblical references
- Short definitions are based upon Bullinger's Lexicon, improved with: a complete reorganization so that definitions are by Greek word; transliterations and Strong's numbers; new verse lists (generated with software, to ensure accuracy and completeness)

Long definitions
- Delivers a broader lexical consideration of each word, based upon both
- Long definitions are based upon Thayer's Lexicon, improved transliterations and Strong's numbers

New American Standard Bible (NASB, 1995)

Translation: a major section with in the site
- Does the behind-the-scenes lookup work, giving you more time to consider the Scriptures themselves
- Displays Greek text and baseline versions
- Saves your translation, so you can refer to it at any time
...word by word
...rough translation
...smooth translation
...translation notes
- Plus print to pdf; export as a spreadsheet

Add your own notes while your read
- Adding notes is another vital way to interact with the text
- Display multiple Bible versions, by chapter--with your notes--in parallel columns that scroll in-sync alongside each other
- Add notes for a verse, for a chapter (by mousing over the chapter number), for a book (by mousing over the book name)
- Write one note and see it displayed alongside many references (that is to say: make one note; enter a list of Bible references; and that note will appear alongside each of those references)
- Plus display options to better fit your style
- Plus print to pdf; export as a spreadsheet

Color-coded Greek text
- Engages visual learners
- Makes it easier to navigate around often-lengthy Greek sentences
- Demystifies verbs (red) vs. participles (red with a blue ending)
- Option: click on the "Colors" menu and select "No color"

Display a chapter at a time, in side-by-side columns
- Read a chapter in multiple versions
- Display multiple Bible versions, by chapter, in parallel columns that scroll in-sync alongside each other

Four initial versions
- King James
- American Standard
- Spanish Reina
- Chinese Union

The team began working together.


©2004-2012 All rights reserved worldwide.

Grammar 4b: Verb Tips

This lesson brings together verb tips for:
- translation
- aspect and action type
- decoding.


verb tips: translation

Here are translation tips for each verb form.

Participle tips are listed separately 
(click for participle tips).

All of these tips are integrated into the advanced section at Bible GT.

Aorist: action in the past
aorist active indicative: I ...d
aorist active subjunctive: I may...
aorist active optative: I perhaps may...
aorist active imperative | 2: You... | 3: Let him/her/it/them...
aorist active infinitive: to ... | ...
aorist middle indicative: I ...d
aorist middle subjunctive: I may be ...d
aorist middle optative: I perhaps may be ...d
aorist middle imperative | 2: You be ...d | 3: Let him/her/it/them be ...d
aorist middle infinitive: to ... | ...
aorist passive indicative: I was ...d
aorist passive subjunctive: I may be ...d
aorist passive optative: I perhaps may be ...d
aorist passive imperative | 2: You be ...d | 3: Let him/her/it/them be ...d
aorist passive infinitive: to be ...d | he/she/it ...d

Imperfect: continual action in the past
imperfect active indicative: I was ...g
imperfect middle-passive indicative | mid: I was ...g | pas: I was being ...d

Perfect: completed action in the past, with effects in the present
perfect active indicative: I have ...d
perfect active subjunctive: I may have ...d
perfect active optative: I perhaps may have ...d
perfect active imperative: 2: You... | 3: Let him/her/it/them...
perfect active infinitive: to have ...d | he/she/it has ...d
perfect middle-passive indicative | mid: I have ...d | pas: I have been ...d
perfect middle-passive infinitive
- mid: to have ...d | he/she/it has ...d
- pas: to have been …d | he/she/it has been ...d
perfect passive imperative: 2: You... | 3: Let him/her/it/them...

Present: action at the time of writing

present active indicative: I...
present active subjunctive: I may...
present active optative: I perhaps may...
present active imperative | 2: You... | 3: Let him/her/it/them ...
present active infinitive: to ... | ...
present middle-passive indicative | mid: I... | pas: I am being ...d
present middle-passive subjunctive | mid: I may... | pas: I may be ...d
present middle-passive optative | mid: I perhaps may... | pas: I perhaps may be ...d
present middle-passive imperative
- mid --2: You... | 3: Let him/her/it/them...
- pas -- 2: You be ...d | 3: Let him/her/it/them be ...d
present middle-passive infinitive
- mid: to ... |
- pas: to be ...d | ...d

Future: action to occur some time after the time of writing
future active indicative: I will...
future middle indicative: I will...
Future middle infinitive: to ...
future passive indicative: I will be ...d


Only rarely occurs...

Pluperfect: completed action in the past, with effects that continued for some time in the past
pluperfect active indicative: I had ...d
pluperfect middle-passive indicative | mid: I had ...d | pas: I had been ...d

Verb tips: decoding

Verb forms have four basic parts:
- Verb start
- Verb body
- Verb code
- Ending
(no ending, for an infinitive or occasional participle; noun ending, for most participles; verb ending, for all others)

Click here to download:
- Verb start guide
- Verb code guide
- Verb ending guide
- Noun ending guide
("nerd and company")


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