Saturday, February 28, 2015

Grammar 5: Preposition, Conjunction, Particle

HOW TO TRANSLATE A PREPOSITION OR CONJUNCTION
(the lesson follows this section)

preposition: relates its object to another word in a sentence (examples: at, by, for, from, in, into, on, to, with)

Look up the case-specific definition.

Write it, the word that completes its meaning,
plus words functioning as adjectives.

If an article occurs before a preposition and does not belong to a word following the prepositional phrase,
  write the one – or nothing at all.
If an article occurs before an infinitive, and perhaps after a preposition,
  use context to render those words.

conjunction: connects words or word groups
coordinating: and, but, or, not, yet, for, so
correlating: either/or, both/and, and neither/nor
subordinating: while, because

Look up the basic meaning. Write it.

3 subordinating words occur more often than all others combined: ὅτι, ἵνα, ὡς

1 Thes 1:5
ὅτι  τὸ  εὐαγγέλιον  ἡμῶν  οὐκ  ἐγενήθη  εἰς  ὑμᾶς  ἐν  λόγῳ  μόνον
For our gospel did not come to you in word only
Reason clause

Eph 4:29
ἵνα  δῷ  χάριν  τοῖς  ἀκούουσιν
That it may give grace to the hearing ones
Purpose clause

1 Thes 2:4
οὐχ  ὡς  ἀνθρώποις  ἀρέσκοντες
Not as pleasing people
Adverbial phrase

---

Now let's take a closer look at prepositions and conjunctions.


LESSON

preposition: shows a relationship between its object and another word in a sentence (examples: at, by, for, from, in, into, on, to, with).

Some prepositions work with just one case, some with two cases, and others with three cases. Prepositions that work with more than one case have case-specific meanings. For example:

δι.ά
- through (when the object of the preposition is in the genitive case)
- on account of (when the object of the preposition is in the accusative case)

How to translate
1. Look up the case-specific definition.
2. Translate, taking into account the verse, its context, and other passages.
3. If an article is just before it, it is usually not translated (unless it is the article for a word following the prepositional phrase).

1 Thes 1:1
...ἐν  θε¦ῷ  πα¦τρὶ...
ἐν  in, on, among
in God the Father


1 Thes 1:8
...ἡ  πίσ¦τις  ¦μῶν  ἡ  πρὸς  τὸν  θε¦ὸν...
πρὸς  toward
your faith, the one toward God
your faith toward God

---

conjunction: connects words or groups of words
- coordinating: and, but, or, not, yet, for, so
- correlating: either/or, both/and, and neither/nor
- subordinating: while, because

How to translate
1. Look up the basic meaning.

2. Translate, taking into account the verse, its context, and other passages.

1 Thes 1:5
...ἀλ¦λὰ  καὶ  ἐν  δυ¦νά¦μει  καὶ  ἐν  πνεύ¦μα¦τι  ¦γί¦...
καὶ  and, even, also

but also in power and in holy spirit

---

particle: a word not classified as some other part of speech


How to translate

1. Look up the basic meaning.

2. Translate, taking into account the verse, its context, and other passages.

1 Thes 1:5
...οὐκ 
¦γε¦νή¦θη...
οὐ  no, nay, not, by no means
it came not

Spelling notes
- οὐ is spelled οὐκ before a vowel with a smooth-breathing mark (’).

- οὐ is spelled οὐχ before a vowel with a rough-breathing mark (‘).

---

color coding
- prepositions and conjunctions: green
- particles: black

---

prepositions that occur 50+ times in the Greek NT

It's very helpful getting to know the prepositions that occur 50 or more times in the Greek New Testament. Here's a guide to those prepositions, featuring girl, dog, and anteater (click and download the prepositions pdf).


---


article + preposition

Sometimes an article appears immediately before a preposition.


1 Thes 1:8
...ἡ  πίσ
¦τις  ¦μῶν  ἡ  πρὸς  τὸν  θε¦ὸν...

When a preposition is preceded by an article, the article "points out" what the prepositional phrase is describing (and that article will agree with what it's pointing out, in gender, number, and case).
1 Thes 1:8
...ἡ  πίσ
¦τις  ¦μῶν  ἡ  πρὸς  τὸν  θε¦ὸν...
your faith, the one toward God
your faith toward God

Here are two more examples:


Rom 8:39
...
¦γά¦πης  τοῦ  θε¦οῦ  τῆς  ἐν  Χρι¦στῷ  ¦η¦σοῦ  τῷ  κυ¦ρί¦ῳ  ¦μῶν.
the love of God, the one in Christ Jesus our Lord
the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord

1 John 4:4

...μεί¦ζων  ¦στὶν  ὁ  ἐν  ¦μῖν      ἐν  τῷ  κόσ¦μῳ.
greater is He the one in you, than the one in the world
greater is He that is in you, than he that is in the world


---

subordinating words

A subordinating word begins a part of a sentence that is dependent upon some other part of the sentence.

Subordinating words introduce a subordinate clause (functioning adverbially) or an adverbial phrase.

Certain conjunctions, particles, and adverbs may act as subordinating words.

---

subordinating words: the top 3

Three subordinating words occur more often than all others combined. The top three are: ὅτι, ἵνα, and ὡς.

(1) ὅτι -- that, since, because (occurs 1303 times in the Westcott-Hort text)
- Begins a reason (cause) clause or a content (for example, that which is spoken or heard) clause
- What it is: conjunction

- Functions as: the start of a subordinate clause, one that functions as an adverb

1 Thes 1:5
¦τι  τὸ  εὐ¦αγ¦γέ¦λι¦ον  ¦μῶν  οὐκ  ¦γε¦νή¦θη  εἰς  ¦μᾶς  ἐν  λό¦γῳ  μό¦νον...
- What it is: subordinate clause
- Acts as: adverb
- Describes: εἰ
¦δό¦τες  knowing
- Describing: which one, what kind, how many | where, when, how, why
- Translation: because [reason] our gospel did not come to you in word only

(2) ἵνα -- in order that, that (occurs 663 times in the Westcott-Hort text)
- Begins a purpose clause 
- Nearly always occurs with the subjunctive mood
- What it is: conjunction

- Functions as: the start of a subordinate clause, one that functions as an adverb

Eph 4:29
...
¦να  δῷ  χά¦ριν  τοῖς  ¦κού¦ου¦σιν.
- What it is: subordinate clause
- Acts as: adverb
- Describes: ἐκ
¦πο¦ρευ¦έσ¦θω proceed
- Describing: which one, what kind, how many | where, when, how, why
- Translation: that [purpose] it may give grace to the hearing ones

(3) ὡς -- as, like, when, that, how, about (occurs 505 times in the Westcott-Hort text)
- What it is: adverb
- Functions as: the start of an adverbial phrase


1 Thes 2:4
 ...οὐχ   ὡς   ἀν¦θρώ¦ποις   ¦ρέ¦σκον¦τες
- What it is: adverbial phrase
- Acts as: adverb
- Describes: λα
¦λοῦ¦μεν
- Describing: which one, what kind, how many | where, when, how, why
- Translation: not as pleasing people

Eph 5:8
...ὡς  τέκ
¦να  φω¦τὸς...

- What it is: adverbial phrase

- Acts as: adverb

- Describes: πε¦ρι¦πα¦τεῖ¦τε
- Describing: which one, what kind, how many | where, when, how, why
- Translation: as children of light

---

subordinating words: 50+ times

Here is a list of subordinating words that occur 50+ times in the Greek NT:

subordinating conjunctions

ἐάν -- if, when
εἰ -- if
ἕως -- until; as far as
ἵνα -- in order that, that
ὅπως -- how, that, in order that; adverb
ὅτι -- that, since, because
ὡς -- as, like, when, that, how, about
ὥστε -- therefore, so that; particle

καθώς -- as, even as
ὅπου -- where
ὅτε -- when

---

particles

Particles are the leftovers, those words that don't seem to fit into the other parts of speech!


What is classified as a particle in some textbooks may be classified as an adverb or conjunction in other textbooks. This is worth being aware of, yet does not affect meaning.

---

the particles οὐ and μή

οὐ and μή are particles (or one could classify them as adverbs).

NT Greek uses these two articles in three distinct ways:

(1) οὐ = not
- Usually used with a verb in the indicative mood
- Being used with the indicative mood, it carries a bit more force than μή
- When one asks a question beginning with οὐ, one expects a positive answer.

1 Thes 1:5
¦τι  τὸ  εὐ¦αγ¦γέ¦λι¦ον  ¦μῶν  οὐκ  ¦γε¦νή¦θη  εἰς  ¦μᾶς  ἐν  λό¦γῳ  μό¦νον...
For our gospel did not come to you in word only...

(2) μή = not

- Usually used with a verb in some mood other than indicative (subjunctive, optative, imperative, or infinitive).
- When one asks a question beginning with μή, one expects a negative answer.

1 Thes 1:8
...ὥσ
¦τε  μὴ  χρεί¦αν  ¦χειν  ¦μᾶς  λα¦λεῖν  τι·
so that we have no need to say anything

(3) οὐ μή = absolutely not, for a future action
- Used with a verb that is aorist subjunctive

1 Thes 4:15
...¦μεῖς  οἱ  ζῶν¦τες  οἱ  πε¦ρι¦λει¦πό¦με¦νοι  εἰς  τὴν  πα¦ρου¦σί¦αν  τοῦ  κυ¦ρί¦ου  οὐ  μὴ  φθά¦σω¦μεν  τοὺς  κοι¦μη¦θέν¦τας·
we--the living ones, the remaining ones until the coming of the Lord--will absolutely not precede the sleeping ones

---

Little Notes

Postpositive: a word placed after another word. Here are two examples:


1 Thes 1:9
αὐτοὶ  γὰρ
...for you

1 Thes 2:17

Ἡμεῖς  δέ...
but we

---

Particle (more...): Here, a particle is a word that does not belong to any other part of speech. Some grammars define particle as a category of small words: preposition, conjunction, or other particle.


---

©2015 TheBible.org All rights reserved worldwide.

2 comments:

EnglishSafari said...

Thanks for sharing the best information and suggestions, If you are looking for the best Nouns worksheets, then English Safari. Highly energetic blog, I’d love to find out some additional information.

practeein said...

Nice reading, I love your content. This is really a fantastic and informative post. Keep it up and if you are looking for Learn Spoken English Online in india then visit Practee Technologies.