Saturday, February 21, 2015

Grammar 6: Single Words and Word Groups

Single-word categories (parts of speech)

represents a person, place, thing, or idea

stands in for a noun
   personal (I, you, he/she/it; we, you, they)
   relative (who, whom, which, that)
   demonstrative (this, that, these, those)

points out a noun: the

describes a noun (or pronoun)
which one, what kind, how many?

describes a verb (or an adjective, or another adverb)
when, where, how, why?

describes like an adjective or adverb, usually with -ing
a believing one (which one)  |  he walks, believing (how)

expresses action or being

relates an object with another word in a sentence
at, by, for, from, in, into, on, to, with

connects words or groups of words
   coordinating: and, but, or, not, yet, for, so
   subordinating: while, because

the leftovers

Single-word functions
   subject (nominative case)
   verb (main verb or clause verb)
   direct object: upon what the action is done
   indirect object: to (or for) whom an action is done

   noun (appositive: side-by-side; predicate nominative: to right of be/become)

   starts a clause
   starts a phrase
   object of a preposition (what completes a preposition’s meaning)

Word-group categories (grammatical constructions)

clause: includes a verb
   independent: can stand by itself
   dependent: cannot stand by itself
   relative: starts with a relative pronoun (who, whom, which, that)
   subordinate: starts with a subordinating word (conjunction or adverb) for example: for, that, so that, as
   purpose: that [purpose]… ἵνα, one of the top 3
   reason: for [reasonὅτι, one of the top 3
   result: so that [result]… ὥστε, occurs often
   adverbial: as… ὡς, one of the top 3
   infinitive: starts with an infinitive may have an accusative subject (plus an object too)

phrase: does not have a verb
   prepositional: starts with a preposition; object completes it; maybe descriptive words too
   participial: participle, plus its direct object (before or after)

Word-group function

describes: a noun or pronoun, or something functioning as a noun
answers: which one, what kind, how many?
hint: relative clauses are usually adjectival

describes: a verb, adv, adj, or something functioning as an adv or adj
answers: when, where, how, why?
hint: subordinate clauses are usually adverbial

other word-group function?
direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition


Translation practice

1 Thes 1: 6, 7 (first 7 words), 9 (final 5 words), 10


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